Spanish grammar: how the plural is formed

In Spanish grammar, it is very simple to convert a singular word into a plural word. If you're learning Spanish, you've probably already noticed it.  Even so, there are still many people who have doubts about the formation of the plural. So that you can do your best, and make no mistake. Here are some simple rules for you to learn how to do it correctly. Learning Spanish is easy if you have the necessary help. In our Spanish school you will learn the necessary rules to form the plural of words, with tricks!

Spanish Grammar: how to convert words to plural

The first thing is to learn to distinguish between an atonic vowel and a tonic vowel. Tonic vowels are those on which the tonic accent falls. Atonic vowels are vowels on which the tonic accent does not fall. Once you have this distinction clear. For example, in the word "Canción," the “ó” is the tonic vowel. “A” and “I” are atonic vowels.

Now that you have understood the difference, from Academia Contacto we leave you some rules to learn how to correctly form words in plural.

Several examples about Spanish grammar

  • For example, nouns and adjectives ending in atonic vowels or in tonic "-e" form the plural with "-s": "mesa/mesas" like its meaning table/tables, taxi/taxis...
  • Nouns and adjectives ending in "-a" or in "-o" tonic form the plural with "-s": mamá/mamás (mother/mothers) or dominó/dominós (domino/dominoes). However, there are some exceptions: the words "no" and "yo" form the plural with "-es": “noes” and “yoes”.
  • Nouns and adjectives ending in "-i" or in "-u" tonic can form the plural with "-s" or with "-es": esquí/esquís/esquíes (ski/skis), bisturí/bisturís/bisturíes (scalpel, scalpels).
  • In the gentils the plural in "-es" is preferred: “marroquí/marroquíes” (Moroccan/Moroccans)
  • The plural of the adverb “sí” is “síes”, and the plural of the musical note “si” is “sis”.
  • Nouns and adjectives ending in – “y” preceded by a vowel. For form the plural with "-es": “Ley leyes” (law/laws)
  • Nouns of foreign origin ending in "-y" preceded by a consonant. These adapt to Spanish by changing the "y" to an "i": ferry/ferri, panty/panti, and form the plural by adding "-s": ferri/ferris, panti/pantis.
  • Adjetives and nouns ending in "-s" or "-x", when monosyllables or acute polysyllables, form the plural by adding "-es": fax/faxes, Francés/Franceses. The others do not change in the plural.
  • Nouns and adjectives ending in consonants -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j, when they do not follow another consonant, form the plural with "-es": “fácil/fáciles”, “pared/paredes”, “reloj/relojes”. The words esdrújulas ending in those consonants do not have plural.
  • Adjetives and nouns ending in consonants other than -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j, -s, -x, -ch form the plural with "-s": crac/cracs, zigzag/zigzags. However, this rule also has exceptions. The plural of club can be “clubs” or “clubes”, and the álbum is “álbumes”.
  • Nouns and adjectives ending in two or more consonants (except those ending in s). These form the plural with "-s": iceberg/icebergs, record/records.
  • The proper names form the plural according to the rules behind, Rebeca / Rebecas, Iñaki/Iñakies, except for those ending in "s" or "z" (Marcos, Carlos, Valdés, González, Pérez, etc.) because they are invariable.
  • Nouns that are trademarks, when used to designate several objects of that same trademark, if the name ends in a vowel form the plural with "-s": I like Hondas more than Yamahas. And if they end in a lonormal consonant it is that they do not form plural: In Madrid you see more Opel than Renault.

With these simple rules, you will surely learn to make the plural much faster. Speaking Spanish can be much easier if you study the rules indicated in a Spanish academy.